E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats

Nabil Ahmed Albaser, Abdel-Wahab H Mohamad, Mohammed Amood Al-Kamarany.

Abstract
Background: Despite numerous reports regarding the associations of Khat chewing with serious health adverse effects, a significant number of people worldwide uses Khat daily, especially in its origin countries. The risk of co-administration of Khat and drugs that is high among these individuals, leading to increase probability of adverse Khat-drug interactions. Under these circumstances, it becomes important to evaluate the effect of concomitant administration of Khat and clinical drugs. Metformin is a drug of biguanide class used to the lower blood glucose concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Aim and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the beneficial or harmful effects of concomitant administration of Khat and metformin in a high fructose diet induced T2DM model.

Materials and Methods: Thirty-six adult male rats weighing 120150 g were made diabetic by feeding a high fructose diet for 4 weeks. These rats while continuing to be on high fructose diet were divided into six groups and administered orally, normal control (normal saline), normal control with Khat (1500 mg/kg), non-treated diabetic group, Khat treated group (1500 mg/kg), metformin treated diabetic (300 mg/kg), and metformin (300 mg/kg) with Khat (1500 mg/kg) treated group. All the above treatments were given for 4 weeks and their effects were studied.

Results: The hyperglycemia, body weight, and lipid profile parameters were brought down significantly by Khat and metformin (P < 0.05) monotherapy; metformin being more effective than Khat. The metformin-Khat combination had a synergistic effect and resulted in much greater efficacy in ameliorating the parameters. Moreover the adverse effect of Khat like lowering of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels was significantly mitigated by metformin-Khat combination.

Conclusion: The results suggested that metformin-Khat combination had a much greater efficacy with the added advantage of reducing the adverse effects.

Key words: Khat; Catha edulis; Metformin; Interactions; Combination


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Albaser NA, Mohamad AH, Al-Kamarany MA. Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2021; 11(7): 767-773. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021


Web Style

Albaser NA, Mohamad AH, Al-Kamarany MA. Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=77728 [Access: October 02, 2021]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Albaser NA, Mohamad AH, Al-Kamarany MA. Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2021; 11(7): 767-773. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Albaser NA, Mohamad AH, Al-Kamarany MA. Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2021), [cited October 02, 2021]; 11(7): 767-773. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021



Harvard Style

Albaser, N. A., Mohamad, . A. H. & Al-Kamarany, . M. A. (2021) Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 11 (7), 767-773. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021



Turabian Style

Albaser, Nabil Ahmed, Abdel-Wahab H Mohamad, and Mohammed Amood Al-Kamarany. 2021. Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 11 (7), 767-773. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021



Chicago Style

Albaser, Nabil Ahmed, Abdel-Wahab H Mohamad, and Mohammed Amood Al-Kamarany. "Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11 (2021), 767-773. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Albaser, Nabil Ahmed, Abdel-Wahab H Mohamad, and Mohammed Amood Al-Kamarany. "Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11.7 (2021), 767-773. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Albaser, N. A., Mohamad, . A. H. & Al-Kamarany, . M. A. (2021) Influence of co-administration of Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) and metformin on metabolic syndrome in high fructose diet induced type 2 diabetes in rats. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 11 (7), 767-773. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.04130202131052021