E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk

Sonia Garg, Naveenta Gupta, Shilekh Mittal, Rajeev Sharma, Arvind Sharma.

Abstract
Background: The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation is a major risk factor of adverse cardiovascular (CV) events.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was as follows: (1) To determine heart rate variability (HRV) in physically healthy patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as a primary diagnosis and their comparison with healthy controls. (2) To compare HRV in patients with MDD versus patients with GAD.

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 volunteer subjects in the age group of 2055 years comprising 80 patients, divided into two groups, 40 with MDD alone without comorbid illness and other 40 with GAD as a primary diagnosis along with 40 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included using convenient sampling. Short-term electrocardiogram (<5 min) was recorded in Lead II using Digital Polygraph Physiopac which was later processed using HRV Analysis software and analyzed statistically using SPSS version 16.0.

Results: A highly significant difference was observed in the mean values of HRV indices between the study group (MDD and GAD) and controls (i.e., P < 0.001). However, a non-significant difference was observed between MDD and GAD group indicating a decrease in cardiac vagal tone, hence indicative of autonomic rigidity and decreased physiological flexibility in psychiatric patients.

Conclusion: Decreased HRV is a indicator of autonomic rigidity and decreased physiological flexibility in psychiatric patients and hence a predictor of cardiovascular mortality.

Key words: Cardiovascular Risk; Generalized Anxiety Disorder; Heart Rate Variability; Major Depressive Disorder


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Garg S, Gupta N, Mittal S, Sharma R, Sharma A. Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2021; 11(9): 955-959. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021


Web Style

Garg S, Gupta N, Mittal S, Sharma R, Sharma A. Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=64368 [Access: September 01, 2021]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Garg S, Gupta N, Mittal S, Sharma R, Sharma A. Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2021; 11(9): 955-959. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Garg S, Gupta N, Mittal S, Sharma R, Sharma A. Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2021), [cited September 01, 2021]; 11(9): 955-959. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021



Harvard Style

Garg, S., Gupta, . N., Mittal, . S., Sharma, . R. & Sharma, . A. (2021) Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 11 (9), 955-959. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021



Turabian Style

Garg, Sonia, Naveenta Gupta, Shilekh Mittal, Rajeev Sharma, and Arvind Sharma. 2021. Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 11 (9), 955-959. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021



Chicago Style

Garg, Sonia, Naveenta Gupta, Shilekh Mittal, Rajeev Sharma, and Arvind Sharma. "Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11 (2021), 955-959. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Garg, Sonia, Naveenta Gupta, Shilekh Mittal, Rajeev Sharma, and Arvind Sharma. "Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11.9 (2021), 955-959. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Garg, S., Gupta, . N., Mittal, . S., Sharma, . R. & Sharma, . A. (2021) Heart rate variability in psychiatric disorders: Implications for cardiovascular risk. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 11 (9), 955-959. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.03089202101042021