E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research

Online Publishing Date:
11 / 06 / 2024

 


Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde

Fathima Fazna P, Kalyanikutty KP.


Abstract
Background: One of the most common reasons for preventable mortality is the smoking habit. Cigarette smoke promotes the process of atherogenesis by producing oxygen-derived free radicals which cause damage to the lipids. Cigarette smoking is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Aims and Objectives: The objectives of the study were the following: (i) to compare the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very LDL (VLDL) in asymptomatic male smokers and non-smokers of the age group 25–50 years; (ii) to determine and compare the levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in the above two groups, and (iii) to study and compare the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the above groups.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 60 males in which 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers of the age group 25–50 years were incorporated. It was a cross-sectional comparative study, which included the participants who met all the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Before the conduct of the study, informed consent was obtained from all the participants. Moreover, the selection of participants was done in a consecutive manner until the sample size was achieved. TC and TGs were estimated by the enzymatic colorimetric method, HDL cholesterol by the phosphotungstic acid method, and LDL and VLDL by Friedwald’s formula. MDA was determined by spectrophotometry and hs-CRP by the immunoturbidometric method. The data acquired were analyzed by utilizing the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 18.

Results: Dyslipidemia was seen in smokers as evidenced by significantly elevated levels of TC, TG, LDL, and VLDL; and significantly reduced levels of HDL. The mean values of hs-CRP were significantly elevated in smokers when compared to that of non-smokers. Oxidative stress was increased in subjects who were smokers. The mean values of MDA were significantly elevated in the smokers.

Conclusion: The smoking habit is associated with dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation which predisposes to the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. The significance of early screening measures to be undertaken in asymptomatic smokers for dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, and hs-CRP is unveiled by the present study. Therefore, early screening can be used to advise smokers to refrain from smoking to avoid complications of CVDs, so that they can upgrade the quality of their life.

Key words: Cigarette Smoke; Lipid Profile; Atherosclerosis; Oxidative Stress; Endothelial Dysfunction; High Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein; Malondialdehyde


 
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Pubmed Style

P FF, KP K. Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. Online First: 11 Jun, 2024. doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024


Web Style

P FF, KP K. Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde. https://www.njppp.com/?mno=202339 [Access: June 11, 2024]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

P FF, KP K. Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. Online First: 11 Jun, 2024. doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

P FF, KP K. Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, [cited June 11, 2024]; Online First: 11 Jun, 2024. doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024



Harvard Style

P, F. F. & KP, . K. (2024) Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, Online First: 11 Jun, 2024. doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024



Turabian Style

P, Fathima Fazna, and Kalyanikutty KP. 2024. Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Online First: 11 Jun, 2024. doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024



Chicago Style

P, Fathima Fazna, and Kalyanikutty KP. "Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology Online First: 11 Jun, 2024. doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

P, Fathima Fazna, and Kalyanikutty KP. "Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology Online First: 11 Jun, 2024. Web. 11 Jun 2024 doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

P, F. F. & KP, . K. (2024) Effect of cigarette smoking on lipid profile, high sensitivity c-reactive protein, and malondialdehyde. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Online First: 11 Jun, 2024. doi:10.5455/njppp.2024.14.05224202429052024