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Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females

Rajani Bala Jasrotia, Arvind Kanchan, Jaman Mohan Harsoda, Rahul Saini, Mayank Agarwal.

Abstract
Background: Many previous research studies have shown a higher prevalence of chronic pain conditions as well as more pain sensitivity or lesser pain thresholds (PTh) among women as compared to men. It might be related to the effect of female reproductive hormones, as these hormones produce its effect on various aspects of physiological systems.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to find the differences in the pain responses as well as cardiovascular reactivity during cold pressor test in different phases of menstrual cycle.

Materials and Methods: Following physical parameters were measured in 75 apparently healthy young Indian females during the three phases of menstrual cycle and utilized for data analysis: Response to cold-induced experimental pain in the form of PTh, pain tolerance (PTo), pain rating on visual analogous scale, pulse reactivity (PRe), systolic blood pressure reactivity (SBPRe), and diastolic BPRe (DBPRe).

Results: Mean PRe was significantly higher during luteal phase as compared to menstrual as well as follicular phase. Mean SBPRe and mean DBPRe were found to be significant higher during luteal phase as compared to the menstrual and follicular phase. Mean PTh and mean PTo were significantly higher during follicular phase as compared to menstrual as well as luteal phase.

Conclusion: This is concluded from above findings that the pain responses vary across the menstrual cycle as shown by higher PTh and tolerance during follicular phase of menstrual cycle. The cardiovascular reactivity to cold pressor pain also varies. The hormonal fluctuation and the differences in the physiological responses, mainly autonomic nervous system reactivity due to these fluctuations, would be the underlying mechanism for these findings.

Key words: Pain Threshold; Pain Tolerance; Pain Rating; Pulse Reactivity; Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressure Reactivity


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Jasrotia RB, Kanchan A, Harsoda JM, Saini R, Agarwal M. Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(2): 273-277. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017


Web Style

Jasrotia RB, Kanchan A, Harsoda JM, Saini R, Agarwal M. Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=286387 [Access: February 23, 2018]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Jasrotia RB, Kanchan A, Harsoda JM, Saini R, Agarwal M. Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(2): 273-277. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Jasrotia RB, Kanchan A, Harsoda JM, Saini R, Agarwal M. Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2018), [cited February 23, 2018]; 8(2): 273-277. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017



Harvard Style

Jasrotia, R. B., Kanchan, A., Harsoda, J. M., Saini, R. & Agarwal, M. (2018) Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 8 (2), 273-277. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017



Turabian Style

Jasrotia, Rajani Bala, Arvind Kanchan, Jaman Mohan Harsoda, Rahul Saini, and Mayank Agarwal. 2018. Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (2), 273-277. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017



Chicago Style

Jasrotia, Rajani Bala, Arvind Kanchan, Jaman Mohan Harsoda, Rahul Saini, and Mayank Agarwal. "Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8 (2018), 273-277. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Jasrotia, Rajani Bala, Arvind Kanchan, Jaman Mohan Harsoda, Rahul Saini, and Mayank Agarwal. "Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8.2 (2018), 273-277. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Jasrotia, R. B., Kanchan, A., Harsoda, J. M., Saini, R. & Agarwal, M. (2018) Pain sensitivity and cardiovascular reactivity to the experimental induced cold pressor pain during different phases of menstrual cycle in young Indian females. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (2), 273-277. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1248725122017



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