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Original Research 


A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata

Rajarshi As, Koushik Chatterjee, Moumita Mandal, Sagarika Sarkar.

Abstract
Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a large public health problem which is rapidly increasing globally as well as in India affecting all age groups. Uncontrolled diabetes increases risk of microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to establish the association between glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) level and presence and severity of DR.

Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Kolkata approved by the institutional Research and Ethics Committee. In this study, 107 Type 2 diabetic patients of 40 years of age and above were taken. Direct Ophthalmoscopy for examination of retina and blood for fasting blood sugar (FBS), post-prandial blood sugar (PPBS), and HbA1C estimation was done.

Results: Results were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test, Fischer Exact test, Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis test were used in statistical analysis as appropriate. Results showed that there was significant association between uncontrolled HbA1C level and presence and severity of DR.

Conclusion: Proper screening of HbA1C at an early stage of diabetes can give an alarm to develop DR and thus help people to prevent it. The healthcare workers should make patients aware of the consequences of diabetes and should give advice about the regular checking of HbA1C level at frequent interval.

Key words: Diabetic Retinopathy; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; Glycated Hemoglobin; Non Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy; Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy; Neovascularization on Disc; Neovascularization Elsewhere; Advanced Glycation End Product


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

As R, Chatterjee K, Mandal M, Sarkar S. A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2021; 11(7): 761-766. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021


Web Style

As R, Chatterjee K, Mandal M, Sarkar S. A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=82163 [Access: September 02, 2021]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

As R, Chatterjee K, Mandal M, Sarkar S. A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2021; 11(7): 761-766. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

As R, Chatterjee K, Mandal M, Sarkar S. A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2021), [cited September 02, 2021]; 11(7): 761-766. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021



Harvard Style

As, R., Chatterjee, . K., Mandal, . M. & Sarkar, . S. (2021) A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 11 (7), 761-766. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021



Turabian Style

As, Rajarshi, Koushik Chatterjee, Moumita Mandal, and Sagarika Sarkar. 2021. A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 11 (7), 761-766. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021



Chicago Style

As, Rajarshi, Koushik Chatterjee, Moumita Mandal, and Sagarika Sarkar. "A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11 (2021), 761-766. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

As, Rajarshi, Koushik Chatterjee, Moumita Mandal, and Sagarika Sarkar. "A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 11.7 (2021), 761-766. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

As, R., Chatterjee, . K., Mandal, . M. & Sarkar, . S. (2021) A cross-sectional study on association between diabetic retinopathy and glycated hemoglobin level among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 11 (7), 761-766. doi:10.5455/njppp.2021.11.05152202101062021