E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study

Raunak Goyal, Suman Sharma, Sangita Chauhan, Manjinder Kaur.

Abstract
Background: Lead is a chemical agent with little or negligible use in the human body. However, deleterious effect can occur if it builds up in the body resulting in multiorgan damage. Long-term exposure to lead occurs through occupational and environmental sources such as mining smelting. Once the level of lead increases in the body, it starts accumulating in the brain, lungs, liver, kidney, teeth, bones, etc. This exposure is preventable if appropriate health measures are taken in industries. Hence, increased awareness should be instilled among the industrialist and workers both so that appropriate measures can be taken to reduce the health hazards in the society.

Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to identify the cardiorespiratory changes in lead smelters. The cardiorespiratory tests were performed on subjects for the determination of blood pressure (BP), electrocardiographic changes, and pulmonary function tests (PFTs).

Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional case–control study including 100 subjects was divided into two groups: Group A is of 50 controls and Group B is of lead smelters. The cardiorespiratory tests performed on subjects comprised recording of electrocardiogram, measurement of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and determination of PFT in controls and lead smelters. Data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests.

Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001) changes found in SBP, DBP, heart rate, forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1), FEV1/forced vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow rate in lead smelters as compared to the control subjects.

Conclusion: Lead has a deleterious effect on human health. Long-term exposure will lead to cardiovascular abnormalities, so the knowledge and awareness of the problem are essential to limit the risk of lead exposure. The current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in industries.

Key words: Lead Toxicity; Pulmonary Function Tests; Blood Pressure; Electrocardiography; Smelting


 
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Pubmed Style

Goyal R, Sharma S, Chauhan S, Kaur M. Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(11): 1107-1110. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019


Web Style

Goyal R, Sharma S, Chauhan S, Kaur M. Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=60639 [Access: November 13, 2019]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Goyal R, Sharma S, Chauhan S, Kaur M. Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(11): 1107-1110. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Goyal R, Sharma S, Chauhan S, Kaur M. Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2019), [cited November 13, 2019]; 9(11): 1107-1110. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019



Harvard Style

Goyal, R., Sharma, . S., Chauhan, . S. & Kaur, . M. (2019) Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 9 (11), 1107-1110. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019



Turabian Style

Goyal, Raunak, Suman Sharma, Sangita Chauhan, and Manjinder Kaur. 2019. Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (11), 1107-1110. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019



Chicago Style

Goyal, Raunak, Suman Sharma, Sangita Chauhan, and Manjinder Kaur. "Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9 (2019), 1107-1110. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Goyal, Raunak, Suman Sharma, Sangita Chauhan, and Manjinder Kaur. "Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9.11 (2019), 1107-1110. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Goyal, R., Sharma, . S., Chauhan, . S. & Kaur, . M. (2019) Effect of lead on cardiorespiratory system in lead smelters: A case–control study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (11), 1107-1110. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0828727082019





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