E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Karthik Devaraju, Smrithi C Shetty.

Abstract
Background: Type 2 diabetes a non-communicable disease with high prevalence rate globally as well as in India is known to cause mental and physical slowing and psychological stress which usually goes unnoticed in the initial stages.

Aims and Objectives: This study aims to assess and compare the cognition functions, muscle strength, and perceived stress in diabetics and normal controls.

Materials and Methods: Fifty-two type 2 diabetes patients and 52 age- and sex-matched controls were randomly selected for the study after the approval from the institutional ethics committee. Stress levels were recorded by perceived stress scale questionnaire, cognitive function test using Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE), and handgrip strength of the dominant and non-dominant hand was determined using a Handgrip Dynamometer. Student’s t-test was used to compare the various parameters among diabetics and normal controls and Pearson correlation coefficient was used to correlate all the parameters.

Results: Diabetics had higher perceived stress score and lower MMSE than nondiabetics. Handgrip strength in diabetics was slightly reduced than non-diabetic group and was higher in males compared to females diabetic males and females with more than 10 years duration had significantly higher score for perceived stress and poor MMSE (<23). MMSE and age were negatively correlated.

Conclusions: Diabetes leads to subtle decline in cognition and handgrip strength associated with high level of stress in the initial stages which may become profound as the disease progresses. Hence, it is important to screen all diabetic patients for stress level and decline in cognition and strength by simple bedside tests at baseline and at regular follow-up and counsel them to cope up with disease and also develops interventions such as lifestyle modification to prevent further progression.

Key words: Cognition; Diabetes; Handgrip Strength; Perceived Stress


 
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Pubmed Style

Devaraju K, Shetty SC. Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(7): 678-682. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001


Web Style

Devaraju K, Shetty SC. Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=44823 [Access: October 18, 2019]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Devaraju K, Shetty SC. Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(7): 678-682. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Devaraju K, Shetty SC. Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2019), [cited October 18, 2019]; 9(7): 678-682. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001



Harvard Style

Devaraju, K. & Shetty, . S. C. (2019) Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 9 (7), 678-682. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001



Turabian Style

Devaraju, Karthik, and Smrithi C Shetty. 2019. Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (7), 678-682. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001



Chicago Style

Devaraju, Karthik, and Smrithi C Shetty. "Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9 (2019), 678-682. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Devaraju, Karthik, and Smrithi C Shetty. "Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9.7 (2019), 678-682. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Devaraju, K. & Shetty, . S. C. (2019) Perceived stress, cognitive function test, and handgrip strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (7), 678-682. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0415501052019001





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