E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Effect of menopause on olfactory function

Anand Kumar Singh, Mayank Agarwal, Nidhi Jain, Neeru Garg, Punam Verma, Sunita Mittal.

Abstract
Background: Olfactory function decreases with aging. The decrease in estrogen also leads to decrease in olfactory acuity. Menopause is a physiological process of aging that is associated with a decreased ovarian reserve and, hence, estrogen secretion. Olfactory dysfunction adversely affects the quality and safety of life.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the olfactory detection and identification threshold of females in reproductive age with the females after at least 5 years of menopause.

Materials and Methods: The current quasi-experimental cross-sectional study involved a convenient sample size of 60 females; 30 females in reproductive age (20–35 years) and 30 females in menopause for 5 years (45–60 years). Elsberg-Levy olfactometry was used to measure the olfactory detection and identification threshold for five odors asafetida, camphor, formalin, peppermint, and rosewater. Independent t-test was applied to compare the means, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The olfactory detection and identification threshold were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in postmenopausal women for all the five odors than the reproductive age women.

Conclusion: The decrease in the acuity of smell in postmenopausal women might be due to the normal aging process; however, it seems to be more dependent on the decreased estrogen secretion.

Key words: Menopause; Odor; Olfaction; Olfactory Threshold; Smell


 
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Pubmed Style

Singh AK, Agarwal M, Jain N, Garg N, Verma P, Mittal S. Effect of menopause on olfactory function. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(7): 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019


Web Style

Singh AK, Agarwal M, Jain N, Garg N, Verma P, Mittal S. Effect of menopause on olfactory function. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=44162 [Access: October 18, 2019]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Singh AK, Agarwal M, Jain N, Garg N, Verma P, Mittal S. Effect of menopause on olfactory function. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(7): 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Singh AK, Agarwal M, Jain N, Garg N, Verma P, Mittal S. Effect of menopause on olfactory function. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2019), [cited October 18, 2019]; 9(7): 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



Harvard Style

Singh, A. K., Agarwal, . M., Jain, . N., Garg, . N., Verma, . P. & Mittal, . S. (2019) Effect of menopause on olfactory function. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 9 (7), 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



Turabian Style

Singh, Anand Kumar, Mayank Agarwal, Nidhi Jain, Neeru Garg, Punam Verma, and Sunita Mittal. 2019. Effect of menopause on olfactory function. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (7), 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



Chicago Style

Singh, Anand Kumar, Mayank Agarwal, Nidhi Jain, Neeru Garg, Punam Verma, and Sunita Mittal. "Effect of menopause on olfactory function." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9 (2019), 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Singh, Anand Kumar, Mayank Agarwal, Nidhi Jain, Neeru Garg, Punam Verma, and Sunita Mittal. "Effect of menopause on olfactory function." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9.7 (2019), 621-625. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Singh, A. K., Agarwal, . M., Jain, . N., Garg, . N., Verma, . P. & Mittal, . S. (2019) Effect of menopause on olfactory function. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (7), 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019





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