E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Effect of menopause on olfactory function

Anand Kumar Singh , Mayank Agarwal , Nidhi Jain , Neeru Garg , Punam Verma , Sunita Mittal .

Abstract
Background: Olfactory function decreases with aging. The decrease in estrogen also leads to decrease in olfactory acuity. Menopause is a physiological process of aging that is associated with a decreased ovarian reserve and, hence, estrogen secretion. Olfactory dysfunction adversely affects the quality and safety of life.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to compare the olfactory detection and identification threshold of females in reproductive age with the females after at least 5 years of menopause.

Materials and Methods: The current quasi-experimental cross-sectional study involved a convenient sample size of 60 females; 30 females in reproductive age (2035 years) and 30 females in menopause for 5 years (4560 years). Elsberg-Levy olfactometry was used to measure the olfactory detection and identification threshold for five odors asafetida, camphor, formalin, peppermint, and rosewater. Independent t-test was applied to compare the means, and P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: The olfactory detection and identification threshold were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in postmenopausal women for all the five odors than the reproductive age women.

Conclusion: The decrease in the acuity of smell in postmenopausal women might be due to the normal aging process; however, it seems to be more dependent on the decreased estrogen secretion.

Key words: Menopause; Odor; Olfaction; Olfactory Threshold; Smell


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

AKS, MA, NJ, NG, PV, SM, . Effect of menopause on olfactory function. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(7): 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019


Web Style

AKS, MA, NJ, NG, PV, SM, . Effect of menopause on olfactory function. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=44162 [Access: February 15, 2020]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

AKS, MA, NJ, NG, PV, SM, . Effect of menopause on olfactory function. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(7): 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

AKS, MA, NJ, NG, PV, SM, . Effect of menopause on olfactory function. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2019), [cited February 15, 2020]; 9(7): 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



Harvard Style

, A. K. S. ., , M. A. ., , N. J. ., , N. G. ., , P. V. ., , S. M. . & (2019) Effect of menopause on olfactory function. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 9 (7), 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



Turabian Style

, Anand Kumar Singh , Mayank Agarwal, Nidhi Jain, Neeru Garg, Punam Verma, Sunita Mittal, and . 2019. Effect of menopause on olfactory function. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (7), 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



Chicago Style

, Anand Kumar Singh , Mayank Agarwal, Nidhi Jain, Neeru Garg, Punam Verma, Sunita Mittal, and . "Effect of menopause on olfactory function." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9 (2019), 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

, Anand Kumar Singh , Mayank Agarwal, Nidhi Jain, Neeru Garg, Punam Verma, Sunita Mittal, and . "Effect of menopause on olfactory function." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9.7 (2019), 621-625. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

, A. K. S. ., , M. A. ., , N. J. ., , N. G. ., , P. V. ., , S. M. . & (2019) Effect of menopause on olfactory function. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (7), 621-625. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0414822042019