E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study

Sheveta Dureja, Rachna Bachhel, Mridu Gupta, Vikram Bhandari.

Abstract
Background: Autonomic nervous system control is a major determinant in various cardiovascular diseases. Onset of menopause in women results in increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Early assessment of the changes in autonomic activity after menopause can help reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular mortality in women.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to compare the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system activity in age-matched pre- and postmenopausal women.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the physiology department of Government Medical College, Amritsar. Two groups of 40 women each were enrolled in the study. We enrolled pre-menopausal women in Group I and post-menopausal women in Group II. Parasympathetic nervous system assessment was done using 30:15 ratio, standing: lying ratio (S: L ratio), Valsalva ratio, and deep breathing test (DBT). Statistical analysis of the collected data was done using student t-test.

Results: Parasympathetic functions tests did not reveal any significant change in the mean 30:15 ratio, S: L ratio, Valsalva ratio, and the mean value for DBT (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: No significant variation in parasympathetic activity between the pre-menopausal and post-menopausal groups was observed.

Key words: Parasympathetic; Menopause; Cardiovascular


 
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Pubmed Style

Dureja S, Bachhel R, Gupta M, Bhandari V. Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(5): 383-386. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019


Web Style

Dureja S, Bachhel R, Gupta M, Bhandari V. Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=30046 [Access: August 23, 2019]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Dureja S, Bachhel R, Gupta M, Bhandari V. Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(5): 383-386. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Dureja S, Bachhel R, Gupta M, Bhandari V. Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2019), [cited August 23, 2019]; 9(5): 383-386. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019



Harvard Style

Dureja, S., Bachhel, . R., Gupta, . M. & Bhandari, . V. (2019) Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 9 (5), 383-386. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019



Turabian Style

Dureja, Sheveta, Rachna Bachhel, Mridu Gupta, and Vikram Bhandari. 2019. Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (5), 383-386. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019



Chicago Style

Dureja, Sheveta, Rachna Bachhel, Mridu Gupta, and Vikram Bhandari. "Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9 (2019), 383-386. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Dureja, Sheveta, Rachna Bachhel, Mridu Gupta, and Vikram Bhandari. "Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9.5 (2019), 383-386. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Dureja, S., Bachhel, . R., Gupta, . M. & Bhandari, . V. (2019) Parasympathetic nervous system changes after the menopause: A comparative study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (5), 383-386. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0203904032019





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