E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India

Mahesh A Gadhvi, Shruti J Shah, Lajja Patel.

Abstract
Background: Smoking is prevalent among the masses, yet the smokers are ignorant about the influence of smoking on peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Smoking is associated with atherosclerosis which in lower limb leads to PAD. The beginning stages of PAD are often asymptomatic, and early symptoms are often dismissed by subjects as “just leg pain.” Identifying patients with asymptomatic PAD are essential to reduce morbidity and mortality. Ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI) is a test, which can be used routinely to screen asymptomatic PAD patients. The cutoff value of ABPI <0.9 is used for its diagnosis.

Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare the risk of PAD in male smokers and age-matched non-smokers of Western Indian.

Materials and Methods: The present study included 121 asymptomatic male smokers and 121 asymptomatic male nonsmokers, between 20 and 40 years of age. Age, height, and weight were taken and body mass index was calculated from it. Blood pressure was taken by sphygmomanometer. By the help of hand-held Doppler ultrasound, ABPI was calculated.

Results: ABPI among smokers was less as compared to nonsmokers which decreases more as the severity of smoking increases. This denotes about the evolving PAD in asymptomatic smokers. The relative risk ratio for the PAD was observed to be 6.14 times more among the smokers as compared to non-smokers.

Conclusion: Cigarette smoking is a widespread addiction in India which is associated with PAD. By this study, we can send a message to quit smoking and prevent cardiovascular consequences of smoking.

Key words: Cigarette Smoking; Atherosclerosis; Peripheral Arterial Disease; Ankle Brachial Pressure Index


 
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Pubmed Style

Gadhvi MA, Shah SJ, Patel L. Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(7): 590-594. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018


Web Style

Gadhvi MA, Shah SJ, Patel L. Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=288738 [Access: October 18, 2019]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Gadhvi MA, Shah SJ, Patel L. Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(7): 590-594. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Gadhvi MA, Shah SJ, Patel L. Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2019), [cited October 18, 2019]; 9(7): 590-594. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018



Harvard Style

Gadhvi, M. A., Shah, . S. J. & Patel, . L. (2019) Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 9 (7), 590-594. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018



Turabian Style

Gadhvi, Mahesh A, Shruti J Shah, and Lajja Patel. 2019. Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (7), 590-594. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018



Chicago Style

Gadhvi, Mahesh A, Shruti J Shah, and Lajja Patel. "Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9 (2019), 590-594. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Gadhvi, Mahesh A, Shruti J Shah, and Lajja Patel. "Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9.7 (2019), 590-594. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Gadhvi, M. A., Shah, . S. J. & Patel, . L. (2019) Comparative study of ankle-brachial pressure index in male smokers of Western India. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (7), 590-594. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.01027201803022018





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