E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus)

Adrian Cielo S Angeles, Michael B Ples, Rodel Jonathan S Vitor.

Abstract
Background: Pramiracetam is being used, particularly by students, to increase cognitive function and enhance learning and memory. There are currently sparse data on the effect of pramiracetam, particularly in the brain. One recent study showed that there is an increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in systemically administered pramiracetam.

Aims and Objectives: To determine if there would be a demyelinating effect in the hippocampus that is a sign of neurological damage due to increasing nitric oxide synthase.

Materials and Methods: A total of fifteen mice were given 200 and 600 mg/kg dose of pramiracetam for qualitative histological comparison of their hippocampal myelination. After administration with food of the pramiracetam for 75 days, the mice were sacrificed and the brains were then extracted intact, and sagittal sections of the brain were made and stained with the Klüver-Barrera method. Hippocampi were analyzed using a compound microscope to observe for demyelination and neuronal degeneration.

Results: Based on histological analysis, there were no signs of demyelination in the hippocampus of the Mus musculus brain. This may indicate that pramiracetam does not cause demyelination that may be due to increased NO production.

Conclusion: Pramiracetam may be safe to take at doses of 200–600 mg/kg without any demyelinating effects in mouse.

Key words: Demyelination; Hippocampus; Mus musculus; Pramiracetam


 
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Pubmed Style

Angeles ACS, Ples MB, Vitor RJS. The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus). Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(3): 431-435. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017


Web Style

Angeles ACS, Ples MB, Vitor RJS. The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus). http://www.njppp.com/?mno=275760 [Access: July 16, 2018]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Angeles ACS, Ples MB, Vitor RJS. The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus). Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(3): 431-435. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Angeles ACS, Ples MB, Vitor RJS. The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus). Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2018), [cited July 16, 2018]; 8(3): 431-435. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017



Harvard Style

Angeles, A. C. S., Ples, M. B. & Vitor, R. J. S. (2018) The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus). Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 8 (3), 431-435. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017



Turabian Style

Angeles, Adrian Cielo S, Michael B Ples, and Rodel Jonathan S Vitor. 2018. The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus). National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (3), 431-435. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017



Chicago Style

Angeles, Adrian Cielo S, Michael B Ples, and Rodel Jonathan S Vitor. "The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus)." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8 (2018), 431-435. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Angeles, Adrian Cielo S, Michael B Ples, and Rodel Jonathan S Vitor. "The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus)." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8.3 (2018), 431-435. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Angeles, A. C. S., Ples, M. B. & Vitor, R. J. S. (2018) The effect of pramiracetam in the myelination of the hippocampus in the BALB/c mouse (Mus musculus). National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (3), 431-435. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0832609112017





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