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Original Research Open Access


Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration

Derick Erl P Sumalapao, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, Yves Ira A Reyes.

Abstract
Background: Water hardness varies depending on the source, treatment procedures, and pipeline conditions among others, though not of immediate concern in water quality control but may have significant health, infrastructural, or industrial effects.

Aims and Objectives: This study quantified, classified, analyzed, and compared hardness of tap water samples from household and commercial faucets across the six legislative districts of Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration.

Materials and Methods: Tap water samples were collected through stratified random sampling, and the hardness was subsequently measured through complexometric titration.

Results: Using the United States Geological Survey Water Quality Information ordinal classification scheme, tap water samples have fluctuating values from “soft” to “very hard” qualitative description of the water hardness.

Conclusion: Despite fluctuations in values, water hardness nonetheless passed the 2007 Philippine National Standards for Drinking Water.

Key words: Water Hardness; Complexometric Titration; Manila City, Philippines; Water Quality


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Sumalapao DEP, Balana AJT, Obias MPEU, Reyes YIA. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2017; 7(12): 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017


Web Style

Sumalapao DEP, Balana AJT, Obias MPEU, Reyes YIA. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=271181 [Access: December 18, 2017]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Sumalapao DEP, Balana AJT, Obias MPEU, Reyes YIA. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2017; 7(12): 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Sumalapao DEP, Balana AJT, Obias MPEU, Reyes YIA. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2017), [cited December 18, 2017]; 7(12): 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



Harvard Style

Sumalapao, D. E. P., Balana, A. J. T., Obias, M. P. E. U. & Reyes, Y. I. A. (2017) Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 7 (12), 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



Turabian Style

Sumalapao, Derick Erl P, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, and Yves Ira A Reyes. 2017. Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7 (12), 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



Chicago Style

Sumalapao, Derick Erl P, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, and Yves Ira A Reyes. "Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7 (2017), 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Sumalapao, Derick Erl P, Aaron John T Balana, Mark Paolo Enrico U Obias, and Yves Ira A Reyes. "Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7.12 (2017), 1385-1389. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Sumalapao, D. E. P., Balana, A. J. T., Obias, M. P. E. U. & Reyes, Y. I. A. (2017) Hardness of tap water samples in Manila City, Philippines through complexometric titration. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7 (12), 1385-1389. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0723613092017



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