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Review Article Open Access


Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy

Nadia Kabir, Yang Yong.

Abstract
Autophagy is a genetically programmed dynamic process for the lysosomal degradation and recycling of bulk cytoplasmic contents, abnormal proteins, and damaged organelles. Along with cellular homeostasis maintenance, autophagy plays a fundamental role in cancer as tumor cells activate autophagy under stressful conditions such as hypoxia, nutrient derivation, and anticancer therapy. Increasing reports suggest the protective role of autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Despite recent developments in HCC anticancer treatment, the overall patient survival remains poor. Tumor hypoxia, a common characteristic of most solid tumors like HCC is correlated with poor prognosis for patients partly because hypoxia promotes resistance to cancer therapy. Hypoxia preferentially selects apoptosis-resistant cells and activates autophagy as a survival mechanism leading to malignant and aggressive phenotype. In this review, we summarized the molecules involved in hypoxia-induced autophagy for HCC progression and anticancer therapy resistance. In addition, the molecular pathways involved in hypoxia-induced autophagy were provided. We also focused on some recent researches between hypoxia-induced autophagy and microRNAs in HCC. We believe understanding the novel function of hypoxia-regulated autophagy may coin new targets for the betterment of HCC treatment and improved clinical outcomes.

Key words: Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Autophagy; Hypoxia


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Kabir N, Yong Y. Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2017; 7(8): 771-780. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



Web Style

Kabir N, Yong Y. Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy. www.scopemed.org/?mno=260333 [Access: October 19, 2017]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Kabir N, Yong Y. Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2017; 7(8): 771-780. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Kabir N, Yong Y. Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2017), [cited October 19, 2017]; 7(8): 771-780. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



Harvard Style

Kabir, N. & Yong, Y. (2017) Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 7 (8), 771-780. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



Turabian Style

Kabir, Nadia, and Yang Yong. 2017. Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7 (8), 771-780. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



Chicago Style

Kabir, Nadia, and Yang Yong. "Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7 (2017), 771-780. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Kabir, Nadia, and Yang Yong. "Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 7.8 (2017), 771-780. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Kabir, N. & Yong, Y. (2017) Hypoxia-induced autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma and anticancer therapy. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7 (8), 771-780. doi:10.5455/njppp.2017.7.0305702042017



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