E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking

Salman Shafi Siddiqui, Mohd. Amir, Tanu Aggarwal, Bhawana Sharma, Sudha Agarwal.

Abstract
Background: UP is one of the biggest cultivators of tobacco. Rules of tobacco consumption are almost absent in the state. The state has almost 34% of young male smokers.

Aims and Objectives: The idea of creating awareness among cigarette smokers and promote deaddiction among youth the present study was conducted in Muzaffarnagar Medical College to assess the cardiovascular risks according to the degree of exposure, i.e., pack-years of smoking.

Materials and Methods: A total of 150 male subjects were taken for the study after proper consent. Five groups were formed - controls (no smoking), Group 1; 0–10 pack-years of smoking, Group 2; 11–20 pack-years of smoking, Group 3; 21–30 pack-years of smoking, and Group 4; 31–40 pack-years of smoking. Pack-years formula = (number of cigarettes smoked per day/20) × number of years smoked was used. Only cigarette smokers were used for the study after using exclusion criteria to rule out any confounding factor. Serum lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were estimated.

Results: As the degree of exposure is increasing, i.e. pack-years of smoking increases, the level of dyslipidemias is also becoming severe being highly significant P < 0.01** in 31–40 pack-years of smoking. hsCRP is significantly increasing P < 0.05* in Group 2 and showing highly significant P < 0.01** increase in Groups 3 and 4.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular risks are increasing significantly as pack-years of smoking is increasing as indicated by dyslipidemias and hsCRP increase, means 21–30 and 31–40 pack-years are at higher risk as compared to 0–10 and 11–20 pack-years.

Key words: Cigarette; Smokers; High-sensitivity C-reactive protein; Tobacco; Cardiovascular risks; Lipid profile


 
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Pubmed Style

Siddiqui SS, Amir M, Aggarwal T, Sharma B, Agarwal S. Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(4): 295-298. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019


Web Style

Siddiqui SS, Amir M, Aggarwal T, Sharma B, Agarwal S. Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=25450 [Access: April 26, 2019]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Siddiqui SS, Amir M, Aggarwal T, Sharma B, Agarwal S. Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2019; 9(4): 295-298. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Siddiqui SS, Amir M, Aggarwal T, Sharma B, Agarwal S. Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2019), [cited April 26, 2019]; 9(4): 295-298. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019



Harvard Style

Siddiqui, S. S., Amir, . M., Aggarwal, . T., Sharma, . B. & Agarwal, . S. (2019) Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 9 (4), 295-298. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019



Turabian Style

Siddiqui, Salman Shafi, Mohd. Amir, Tanu Aggarwal, Bhawana Sharma, and Sudha Agarwal. 2019. Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (4), 295-298. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019



Chicago Style

Siddiqui, Salman Shafi, Mohd. Amir, Tanu Aggarwal, Bhawana Sharma, and Sudha Agarwal. "Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9 (2019), 295-298. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Siddiqui, Salman Shafi, Mohd. Amir, Tanu Aggarwal, Bhawana Sharma, and Sudha Agarwal. "Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 9.4 (2019), 295-298. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Siddiqui, S. S., Amir, . M., Aggarwal, . T., Sharma, . B. & Agarwal, . S. (2019) Quantitative assessment of cardiovascular risks in cigarette smokers using pack-years of smoking. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (4), 295-298. doi:10.5455/njppp.2019.9.0101605022019





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