E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects

Sunita Meena, Jyotsna Shukla, Prathviraj Meena, Amit Tak, Bhupendra Patel.

Abstract
Background: Use of cigarette is a great cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. The blood vessel system effects of cigarette smoke are mediated by nicotine (alkaloid). Alkaloid increases heart rate and the myocardial pump activity.

Aims and Objectives: This study aims to detect and compare autonomic function tests in male cigarette smoker and non-smoker healthy control subjects.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Sawai Man Singh Medical (SMS) College and Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan, on 30 male cigarette smokers between the age group of 20 and 40 years, selected among employees of SMS Medical College, Jaipur, from various departments along with 30 healthy age-matched non-smokers.

Results: Heart rate response to deep breathing (30:15 ratio), expiration/inspiration ratio, and Valsalva ratio were significantly decreased in smokers. Cigarette users have increase in systolic blood pressure (BP) and diastolic BP, but no significance difference was found in our study, BP response to standing shows decrease in systolic BP and sustained handgrip test (SHG) test response is also decrease in diastolic BP in cigarette users than the control healthy subjects.

Conclusion: Our study results can be concluded that cigarette smoking causes increase sympathetic and reduced parasympathetic activity when compared with control healthy subjects.

Key words: Autonomic Function Test; Smokers; Non-smokers; Diastolic Blood Pressure; Systolic Blood Pressure; Orthostatic Fall; Sustained Hand Grip Test


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Meena S, Shukla J, Meena P, Tak A, Patel B. A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2020; 10(11): 940-944. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020


Web Style

Meena S, Shukla J, Meena P, Tak A, Patel B. A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=118118 [Access: October 31, 2020]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Meena S, Shukla J, Meena P, Tak A, Patel B. A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2020; 10(11): 940-944. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Meena S, Shukla J, Meena P, Tak A, Patel B. A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2020), [cited October 31, 2020]; 10(11): 940-944. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020



Harvard Style

Meena, S., Shukla, . J., Meena, . P., Tak, . A. & Patel, . B. (2020) A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 10 (11), 940-944. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020



Turabian Style

Meena, Sunita, Jyotsna Shukla, Prathviraj Meena, Amit Tak, and Bhupendra Patel. 2020. A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 10 (11), 940-944. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020



Chicago Style

Meena, Sunita, Jyotsna Shukla, Prathviraj Meena, Amit Tak, and Bhupendra Patel. "A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 10 (2020), 940-944. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Meena, Sunita, Jyotsna Shukla, Prathviraj Meena, Amit Tak, and Bhupendra Patel. "A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 10.11 (2020), 940-944. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Meena, S., Shukla, . J., Meena, . P., Tak, . A. & Patel, . B. (2020) A case–control study of autonomic function tests in male cigarette smokers and healthy control subjects. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 10 (11), 940-944. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.07175202011072020