E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction

Gopakumar G, Prathibha V K, Ranju Jayaprakash.

Abstract
Background: Propofol is the induction agent of choice for carrying out day care surgeries. Hypotension is one of its common adverse effects. Several drugs were evaluated in preventing this hypotension which gave inconclusive results.

Aims and objectives: This study aimed to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in preventing the hypotension due to induction with propofol. Its objective was to evaluate if KA has better efficacy than ED in reducing the incidence of hypotension following propofol induction.

Materials and Methods: We had done this randomized double-blind placebo controlled study prospectively in a total of 120 patients over 18 months. Patients planning to undergo elective surgeries under general anesthesia belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) Grades 1 and 2 were incorporated in the study. They were divided into three groups after randomization. They were given normal saline (Group NS), ephedrine (Group ED), and ketamine (Group KA) just before administration of propofol for induction. Parameters such as non-invasive blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and oxygen saturation were noted at baseline, 1 min after propofol administration, just before endotracheal intubation and at 1, 2, and 3 min after endotracheal intubation. The efficacies of drugs were assessed based on variation in BP and HR.

Results: In this study, the systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure values in group KA and group ED after propofol injection and before endotracheal intubation were considerably higher than that of group NS (P < 0.001). The mean HR values in the three groups were similar (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: Ephedrine and ketamine have similar efficacy in reducing the incidence of hypotension following induction with propofol.

Key words: Ephedrine; Ketamine; Propofol; Hypotension


 
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How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

G G, K PV, Jayaprakash R. A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020


Web Style

G G, K PV, Jayaprakash R. A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=112711 [Access: June 25, 2020]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

G G, K PV, Jayaprakash R. A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

G G, K PV, Jayaprakash R. A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020



Harvard Style

G, G., K, . P. V. & Jayaprakash, . R. (2020) A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020



Turabian Style

G, Gopakumar, Prathibha V K, and Ranju Jayaprakash. 2020. A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020



Chicago Style

G, Gopakumar, Prathibha V K, and Ranju Jayaprakash. "A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction." doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

G, Gopakumar, Prathibha V K, and Ranju Jayaprakash. "A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction." doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

G, G., K, . P. V. & Jayaprakash, . R. (2020) A prospective randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy of ephedrine and ketamine in the prevention of hypotension following propofol induction. doi:10.5455/njppp.2020.10.06145202016062020