E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study

Geetha S, Lincoln Deva Kumar S.

Abstract
Background: Tobacco smoking is linked to ocular conditions such as cataract, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness and the second most common cause of blindness. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major, modifiable risk factor for glaucoma.

Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken to determine the effect of tobacco smoking on IOP.

Materials and Methods: A total of 200 apparently healthy males (100 smokers and 100 non-smokers) of 20–40 years were recruited. Smokers were categorized based on smoking index. IOP was recorded using Schiotz tonometer. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded using mercury sphygmomanometer.

Results: Mean age of the smokers was 28.71 years and that of the non-smokers was 29.31 years. Majority of the smokers (n = 79) used cigarettes and most of them (n = 55) smoked 1–10 cigarettes per day. More than half the smokers were light smokers. Bidi smokers totalled 30 in number and 30% of them (n = 9) smoked 21–30 bidis a day. Mean IOP in the right eye and left eye in smokers was 14.68 mmHg and 15.69 mmHg, respectively, whereas they were 14.45 mmHg and 15.11 mmHg, respectively, in the non-smokers. 5% of smokers showed elevated IOP. Mean systolic BP among smokers was 119.52 mmHg and in non-smokers; it was 118.92 mmHg. Mean diastolic BP among smokers was 79.82 mmHg, whereas in non-smokers, it was 79.48 mmHg.

Conclusions: Tobacco smoking is not associated with raised IOP according to our study and tobacco smokers are not at a greater risk for developing elevated IOP.

Key words: Tobacco; Cigarette; Bidi; Intraocular Pressure; Schiotz Tonometer; Smoking Index


 
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Pubmed Style

S G, S LDK. Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(12): 1662-1667. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018


Web Style

S G, S LDK. Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=11090 [Access: December 13, 2018]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

S G, S LDK. Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(12): 1662-1667. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

S G, S LDK. Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2018), [cited December 13, 2018]; 8(12): 1662-1667. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018



Harvard Style

S, G. & S, . L. D. K. (2018) Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 8 (12), 1662-1667. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018



Turabian Style

S, Geetha, and Lincoln Deva Kumar S. 2018. Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (12), 1662-1667. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018



Chicago Style

S, Geetha, and Lincoln Deva Kumar S. "Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8 (2018), 1662-1667. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

S, Geetha, and Lincoln Deva Kumar S. "Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8.12 (2018), 1662-1667. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

S, G. & S, . L. D. K. (2018) Does smoking affect intraocular pressure? A cross-sectional study. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (12), 1662-1667. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1031109102018





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