E-ISSN 2231-3206 | ISSN 2320-4672
 

Original Research 


Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach

Suzana Mustafa, Mohd Nazri Ali, Azhar Mohamed, Nazmi Liana Azmi, Nurul Ilani Bahar, Rosaidaremanja Sukri, Afifah Azhari.

Abstract
Background: The pharmacokinetics (PK) of vancomycin in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients is difficult to predict due to the scarcity of data and the variable physiology of the patient cohort.

Aims and Objectives: Since there are limited studies worldwide, this study is, therefore, intended to explore vancomycin population PK parameters in critically ill ICU patients in Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kelantan, Malaysia.

Materials and Methods: Vancomycin population PK in ICU patients was modeled with Pmetrics. A total of 92 samples from 45 ICU patients were included in the model building and validation. The median observations per patient were three with a range of one to four observations. The median parameters estimates obtained from the final model were used to predict individual vancomycin clearance (CL) in the validation dataset.

Results: The PK of vancomycin was adequately described with a two-compartment model. Parameters included CL of 1.64 L/h, volume of distribution in central compartment of 20.0 L, rate of constant from central out to the peripheral compartment of 2.92/h, and the rate constant back from the peripheral to central compartment of 7.17/h. The developed model adequately estimated CL in the validation dataset.

Conclusion: A model to describe the PK of vancomycin was developed which adequately describes vancomycin population PK in critically ill ICU patients in Kelantan. The model might be used in initiating a vancomycin dosage regimen in the type of patients similar to the present study.

Key words: Pharmacokinetics; Vancomycin; Intensive Care Unit; Critically ill; Nonparametric


 
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Pubmed Style

Mustafa S, Ali MN, Mohamed A, Azmi NL, Bahar NI, Sukri R, Azhari A. Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(12): 1672-1679. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018


Web Style

Mustafa S, Ali MN, Mohamed A, Azmi NL, Bahar NI, Sukri R, Azhari A. Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach. http://www.njppp.com/?mno=10763 [Access: December 13, 2018]. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Mustafa S, Ali MN, Mohamed A, Azmi NL, Bahar NI, Sukri R, Azhari A. Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. 2018; 8(12): 1672-1679. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Mustafa S, Ali MN, Mohamed A, Azmi NL, Bahar NI, Sukri R, Azhari A. Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol. (2018), [cited December 13, 2018]; 8(12): 1672-1679. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018



Harvard Style

Mustafa, S., Ali, . M. N., Mohamed, . A., Azmi, . N. L., Bahar, . N. I., Sukri, . R. & Azhari, . A. (2018) Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach. Natl J Physiol Pharm Pharmacol, 8 (12), 1672-1679. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018



Turabian Style

Mustafa, Suzana, Mohd Nazri Ali, Azhar Mohamed, Nazmi Liana Azmi, Nurul Ilani Bahar, Rosaidaremanja Sukri, and Afifah Azhari. 2018. Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (12), 1672-1679. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018



Chicago Style

Mustafa, Suzana, Mohd Nazri Ali, Azhar Mohamed, Nazmi Liana Azmi, Nurul Ilani Bahar, Rosaidaremanja Sukri, and Afifah Azhari. "Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8 (2018), 1672-1679. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Mustafa, Suzana, Mohd Nazri Ali, Azhar Mohamed, Nazmi Liana Azmi, Nurul Ilani Bahar, Rosaidaremanja Sukri, and Afifah Azhari. "Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach." National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology 8.12 (2018), 1672-1679. Print. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Mustafa, S., Ali, . M. N., Mohamed, . A., Azmi, . N. L., Bahar, . N. I., Sukri, . R. & Azhari, . A. (2018) Determination of vancomycin pharmacokinetics in critically ill intensive care unit patients in Malaysia: A population pharmacokinetic analysis with a nonparametric approach. National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 8 (12), 1672-1679. doi:10.5455/njppp.2018.8.1030815102018





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